|موضوع: رد: الاستخدامات والتطبيقات المدنية للاستشعار عن بعد.....Uses and civilian applications of remote sensing السبت 23 يناير 2010, 6:13 pm|| |
Uses and civilian applications
First: The natural resource inventory
Enabled the remote sensing images to correct a lot of information and re-consideration of most geological maps, because these images give a holistic view and accurate units and geological structures, along with a large, and give preliminary indications of the potential mineral and oil and gas.
Today, there are countless examples of the success of this technology in applications, during the past few years in the center of Morocco on the iron and phosphate, and in Canada, France, Spain, Egypt, and others.
1. Limited the sources of oil and gas
International oil companies have become dependent, semi-Chairman, on an extrapolation of images to locate drilling for oil and gas, after it had been based on conventional aerial photography, which exhaust a lot of time and costs, while these companies can today use the image space on the ground, covering an area of 34 thousand square kilometers, they need a thousand and six hundred aerial photo to cover the same area, and the cost is prohibitive, and accurately modest, despite the large scale of these images.
The satellite images to areas of minerals, oil and gas in sedimentary basins and faults, and others, making it easier to guide the work of detailed exploration, access to the periods of record results, has successfully applied this technique in Burma, the Philippines, Kenya, and Egypt.
2. Limited the sources of groundwater
Can be by analysis of satellite images and indicators showing the location of groundwater, and examine the sources of surface water, and direct use to great effect as well as the study of snow accumulation and its impact on groundwater recharge. Have been detected by these means and a water-rich valleys in the sea and west of the Nile in Sudan, and are based on maps is important for land use.
Second: the work area
Resulted in modern technologies for remote sensing, and electronic processing of data to a revolutionary change in the work area, which made the new maps are better able to understand the world. And perhaps more able to manage it, The maps seek to simplify the world to the standards allow his understanding of the human person.
It should be noted that satellite imagery obtained from heights over hundreds of times those altitudes for aircraft flying area, it is clear that it opened up new horizons, especially for an area of small scale.
What was a problem in aerial photography for mapping, cloud cover in the event of bad weather, were subjected to sensory systems and devices to date, are not affected by clouds at all. In Brazil, for example, was the result of six years to gather aerial photos of the mapping of a vast area, covering the production of acceptable to half the size of the desired and required only produced while the flights of modern radar used a side-view coverage of all the required area and, very quickly, ( see the picture of the city cemetery toss).
III: The effect of the atmosphere in the photography from space
With the beginning of the space age, the thought of the upcoming reality mapping limited, as many experts assumed that the Earth's atmosphere distort and prevent the imaging quality of the space, but astronauts first demonstrated the error of this assumption. Commented astronaut "John Glenn", when he approached the end of the orbital flight, the spacecraft, "Mercury" in 1962, saying: "I can see the state of Florida full fully extended, as is the map."
This enables the astronaut Glenn, from an integrated vision would not have had generations of cartographers to assemble on the surface of the earth, or through a low flying. What is perhaps more interesting, and revealing account for the cartographers, the experience of "Gordon Cooper" during the trip, "Mercury," the last in 1963, told the astronaut is at an altitude of 165 km above the surface of Tibet, saying: "I can tell the homes and streets individually."
IV: the evolution of mapping using satellite images
In comparing the maps, which was overtaken by events after two years many, the images taken by astronauts, scientists have been able to distinguish easily maps mountains, which were not specified in the previous maps of Tibet, as well as the Lakes set out in the wrong places on the map, the routes specified in the bottoms of ancient lakes. It is these images possible to draw a map of modern Tibet.
In cartography, the map is intended to serve the objective a specific purpose, contrary to the general map, that shows the expanding range of phenomena in the same time. The topic may be soil, or the distribution of vegetation, or snow cover, or geological faults, or patterns of land use. All of these are tools to make mapping using remote sensing techniques.
In the seventies, Brazil carried out, with the help of Americans, a survey of the Amazon River basin, which was surveyed in the past weak, which is half the size of Brazil, using airborne radar. The discovery of the river, it is not planned in the past, beyond the length of several hundreds of kilometers, and the area used to be the national forest, indicating it is an area of Savannah.
In 1982 the Geological Survey completed the first base of digital cartographic information, which is a magnetic tape record of the computer, containing the fonts, borders, roads, railways, rivers and streams, and other cartographic features of the United States as a whole.
Fifth: the development of new space Airborne
Developed areas and means of geomagnetic Geomagnetic Surveys Airborne Division in Germany and the United States in the thirties of the twentieth century AD, and used to detect submarines during World War II. This method has proved its value in the area of mining in several countries.
And space was Alradiomitrip second type of natural geological area in order to become airborne, and space electromagnetic Electromagnetic Surveys was the third.
Sixth: the discovery of the effects
Exploration of areas of archaeological application of remote sensing mission, where you can use satellite and aerial images for detection of archaeological sites, through the vision of the superficial manifestations and below, through the interpretation of these images.
Has begun using remote sensing in detecting effects in the expansion of visible, which has yet to emerge, through the follow-up to chromatic aberrations in the vegetation cover in place, and a different degree of moisture in the soil, and the growth of plants on the site studied, and through follow-up forms and geometric patterns that you take for example the phenomena of frost in the region.
1. Surface archaeological features
The surface manifestations of archaeological mission, include visual effects, and the hills, and rock masses, and other surface effects, for example, are monuments to the ancient buildings and castles in Europe in general.
Examples of archaeological hills discovered by remote sensing techniques hills that are similar to flu in the form, and the hills that are similar to snakes, in central western United States, as well as many of the effects of surface in Russia as well.
2. Archaeological features under the surface
The archaeological features under the surface, include the effects of landfills, Kalobnip old, canals, and ditches the old and ancient ways as well. When these aspects are covered agricultural fields, or natural vegetation, it can be clearly shown by the aerial photos by following the color changes resulting from differences in soil moisture and the extent of plant growth and strength.
In some cases, such phenomena appear clearly through the differences are temporary, ephemeral, and that the follow-up forms and geometric patterns, which take the manifestations of frost winning the studied area.
This is the use of the results interesting and unexpected remote sensing, in particular it relates to discoveries could not have been uncovered in any other known technique. During the past several centuries, has been a desert of Oman, for example, a conduit for convoys, and if the paths of these convoys is not visible on the ground, it has seemed clear in the pictures, taken by satellites from space. And at the confluence of these tracks there is a very high probability in the discovery of ancient ruins.
VII: Agricultural Applications
Agricultural find many applications of remote sensing, detection of early injury crops and insects raids on rural areas, through the use of systems with multiple sensors, will reduce the losses resulting from this, by providing an opportunity for remedial action to be applied more quickly and more effectively.
As a rule, usually to prevent injury to plants, or to reduce the destruction of crops selected by harmful insects, are crop spraying periodically, several times during the season. And remote sensing can be done to avoid the spraying is not necessary, in areas with intensive agriculture, by identifying the fields, non-infected, by remote sensing techniques, which can detect and distinguish the fields affected by the sound of the fields.
The use of aerial photography of aircraft in agricultural applications
Although some details may not be possible in the footage and satellite images because of this small scale, the aerial photography of aircraft at different altitudes, can be used to delineate the Bekaa elusive vision, once the signal from space and the presence of infection. Also, the prediction on the status of pre-grain crops, by controlling the activity of the plant is another objective of the remote sensing.
Photos and helps to guide the agricultural fields of farmers to the places where crops are flourishing, and those that do not conform with them. Such images that can help farmers to visualize patterns of the soil in certain fields, and thus improve their strategies on places of irrigation and fertilization and the timing and Mviadearhama occasion.
VIII: A Study of the seas and oceans
Of the most important applications of remote sensing study of water in the seas and oceans, as a complement with the land component of the system Earth. The total areas of water on the ground about 139.294 million square miles, while the estimated land area of approximately 57.656 million square miles.
These are water area of oceans and seas, lakes and rivers. But the ocean and seas are about 98% of the total on the ground water, which is salt water, the salinity of up to 3.5%, and they often consist of salts of chloride and sodium sulfate, potassium, magnesium and others.
And the movement of water in the seas and oceans, profoundly affects the planet's climate, but the planet's climate is a direct result of the interaction of this enormous mass of water with land, (see the picture of ocean waves in red). The large movement and the movement of warm water from the tropics to polar regions, and thus impact on the climate and rates of melting snow.
1. The first satellite to study the oceans and seas
Began the study of oceans using satellites in real beginning in 1978, with the launch of satellite, "TIROS" TIROS and "Nmbos" Nimbus and "C-SAT" Seasat. These satellites are equipped with three to monitor the oceans. When the United States launched the satellite NIMBUS-7 `For information concerning the oceans and seas and air, they identified areas of his information, including the following:
A. Ocean color, and loose material by salt water.
B. The distribution of snow to the seas and oceans, and atmospheric composition.
C. Energy balance on the surface of the earth.
There is a Franco-American project to launch satellites to study the ocean under the name "TOPIX Poseidon" Topex-Posidon, and the project to launch a Canadian satellite called "RSI". Russia there is a satellite constellation, "Okean" OKEAN dedicated to monitoring ice cover and monitor changes accurately, 30 km, and is expected to launch other satellites with higher accuracy in the same group.
The planned use satellites to monitor the seas and oceans, in general, electromagnetic radiation in different regions of the spectrum. And waves in the spectrum of different regions have different characteristics can be used for measuring and monitoring. Infrared rays are produced by thermal changes, and light rays are used in normal daytime photography, while enjoying the rays infinitely Palace Microwaves Microwave characteristics of high penetration, and therefore not affected by the atmosphere.
2. Search for sources of wealth in the seas and oceans
Became clear that many parts of the oceans and seas is still unknown, where it was not possible to reach by traditional methods to study them, so you can detect what may and containing sources of natural wealth.
With the development of scientific and technological advances that accompanied the conquest of space and the launching of satellites and spacecraft, it was possible to create devices that modern remote sensing can be used to get a lot of information and data important and delicate, and in periodic and regular reports on the natural characteristics of these vast areas of water from the seas and oceans, especially the remote ones.
And can use this information to study the potential of the seas and oceans of various natural resources, which mankind needs at the moment, with the steady rise in population, and a corresponding decrease in the natural resources on the land.
IX: remote sensing and hydrological
Can be used in remote sensing in several studies of water, especially in remote areas of the seas and oceans, such as measuring water area, and determine their depths, where permitted by the degree of purity of water, as well as recording turbidity, and study the prevalence of sediment and solid waste and patches of oil being dumped ships, and the Thermals, and the layers of water varying in salinity or temperature, as well as to study the changes that occur in the beaches, islands and sandbars.
And large vessels such as tankers, either to use the water currents in the movement or avoided in the planning of the route optimization, in order to save fuel and time, and thus the study of the movement of ocean currents is a need for such planning.
Although this type of monitoring and the study was previously through measurements carried out with the balloons, or the results of a secondary school for the first satellite measurements, he has taken a big boost satellites launched a specialized study of the ocean.
1. Study the seabed and the ocean
Satellites can draw the ocean floor directly, by making precise measurements of ocean surface waves by radar, by which inferred Algioveziqion on the topography of the ocean floor, because this band is able to detect minor rises in the water by gravity attraction of the topography of the deep ocean. Vaketl large mountain of the ocean floor attracts more of the water near them, which leads to a rise above the sea level enough to be detected by radar.
The vessels conducted the survey and the survey work of the survey maps, and mapped to about 7% of the area of seabed and the ocean by the echo feedback devices  "Sonar" Sonar. And even in areas that have been given good maps, the existence of large areas of a key-free, the flow of ships in one specific directions, maps, forcing makers to rely on guesswork and imagination to fill in the gaps in the maps, which often extend for hundreds of miles away.
It is noteworthy that the work of a survey of the seabed and the ocean by remote "sonar" is extremely tedious, because the ship carrying devices cover a small area as a result of movement in one path back and forth for nearly a month.
2. Ocean Color refers to what is in
Since 1978 scientists have developed techniques for addressing ocean variables of great importance, including the conclusion of the circumstances under the sea, as its impact on electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of the sea, or reflected from it. This entails a good knowledge of natural processes taking place in the upper layers of the ocean.
For example, the color of the sea, as recorded by satellite, does not help itself, but there are influential factors in the color of some importance. Chlorophyll Vtrabott with submerged vegetation or suspended in the water affect the ratio between the colors green and blue.
Thus, Vpaljma between the vision theory, experiments spoken, it was possible to use processes that allow the link between ocean color and the amount of chlorophyll at a depth of several meters. Similarly, but to a lesser degree of confidence, can refer to the contents of the color of the sea deposits, as can be, in shallow water, the color indicates the depth of the sea.
3. Moon "Giosat"
In 1985 it became possible to consider a different way to the world of the ocean basins, when the U.S. Navy fired plant, "John Hopkins" Applied Physics a satellite called "Giosat" Geosat radar and a device for measuring altitudes, in order to make measurements of sea surface topography, showing the implications of the radar Rough Terrain, terrain large at the bottom of the ocean.
This has allowed the dissemination of information that was obtained by the satellite, in response to the request made by the scientists, non-military, but most of the information kept secret to its importance to the U.S. Navy. Then allowed the U.S. Navy after the publication of all information, in a few months after the satellite ERS-1 of the European Space Agency to reach a similar survey of the sea, which allowed for the first time, no information remains confidential, and to give a detailed picture of all the ocean basins.
Was provided with the information provided by these scientists analyzed satellite unusual to Earth's gravity field across the oceans. And allowed the flow of new information against a set of fundamental questions about the topography of the seabed and the ocean.
4. Scan the ocean depths with sonar
It is known that in the fifties, the first poll, rapid and accurate survey of the ocean depths with "sonar." The results were surprising for oceanographers, Vordip Pacific, which Tejeloha Tablelands, with no milestones or attributes, they discovered that the terrain more rugged than the one above the ground. It contains much higher in the mountains and, by extension from the mountains of the earth, and under the sea there is a series of volcanoes that surround the Earth.
5. Topography of the ocean floor
Geologists realized the differences in the topography of mid-ocean mountain range since the beginning of the seventies, but they were not able to find an appropriate interpretation of it. Moving from pattern to pattern the other terrain, there was a gradual, and appears when increasing rates of extension.
The nature of this transition remained obscure, largely because most mid-ocean ridge, which ran at moderate rates, they settled away in the South Pacific on the southern continent, remained virtually unexplored. But the mountain ranges of the Central Pacific Atlantic and Pacific Oceans has received the most attention, and shows the stations along the fast and slow classes.
In July 1996 he scored a satellite of the Navy, for the first time, clearly pointed the Pacific basin, which enabled the scientists to do many maps for many of the Navy, which was unknown before, as it helped them to reach a better understanding of ground seas and oceans.
Now, scientists get regular coverage of the ocean floor by satellite, where you can see the mountains in an integrated network, and a direct comparison between the mountains which spread slowly or at an average, between which they spread rapidly. What was discovered was inconsistent with what was thought of before.
Aftbogravea mountain range does not always change gradually, when the rates increase the extension. While the movement of spacing layers increase in the rate of speed, the valleys deep in the Central mountain range extension and flat slow gradually. The sea floor caused by these events become, the other as well.
In one part of the vast Indian Ocean, which are neglected during the search of vessels, the satellite map revealed the work of the three mountain ranges exciting. The series of mountains in the middle of the ocean south of the island of Madagascar was very deep.
Tenth: Urban Planning
In the field of urban planning, using remote sensing images to select the best sites for the establishment of urban and industrial facilities, and engineering, such as dams, roads, railways, tunnels, nuclear power plants, traditional, and harbors.
And the use of remote sensing gives a good basis for planning procedures that can predict the impact that could result from the construction of the interview on the walks of the neighboring urban areas, for example.
Also found experimentally that some footage space images depicting varying types of adjacent areas, and the successive and repeated coverage of urban areas by satellite images to give clues on the impact the expansion of cities.
XI: A Study of thermal insulation
You can use remote sensing techniques to study the amount of energy loss and the safety of the thermal insulation of buildings in many cities of the world where you can heat up the differences and the differences in temperatures of roofs, walls and doors and windows, thermal insulation in buildings located adjacent to buildings, homes, such as markets Assembly, the workplace and so on.
The best of times in which the follow-up of thermal insulation and energy conservation is through cold winter nights, and after six to eight hours of sunset, and to reduce the thermal effects of the sun on the buildings and areas to be studied.
As well as the thermal scan can be done for areas to be considered during cloudy days and cold winter, too, but that the Bishop of buildings that are thermally scanned by infrared devices must not be covered with snow, and should not be wet as well, and can also be follow-up of thermal insulation to the walls of buildings and their foundations, doors and windows in the manner itself.
XII: The preservation of the environment
Can take advantage of remote sensing techniques to preserve the environment, which facilitates the study of water pollution, air and surface of the Earth through satellite imagery, using satellite images after treatment with the computer. There are programs for accurate scientific studies of pollution and the quantity and quality, previously implemented and currently being implemented by many different countries in the world using satellite imagery data, analysis and interpretation.
Analysis of satellite images showed good potential for monitoring and mapping water pollution, air and soil, based on the experiences of many countries applied these techniques, and even now is still applied in many pollution problems. For example: study the expansion of certain pollution accidents along the surveyors widely, such as the control of oil spills and oily different, which is important for many countries of the world, as well as to study the different sources of water pollution and soil pollution.
XIII: identification of sources of pollution
Remote sensing will identify sources of pollution, helps to monitor the residual spatial extension of this pollution, especially in the event of certain emergency pollution, as well as to study the focus of this pollution, flow speed and flow, the amount of dispersion as well. The image space can enjoy the benefits and advantages of the overall vision, which helps to study the problem of pollution when they are covering a large area of space, and carefully checked after that.
This feature is important in many of the examples. For example, to analyze pollution resulting from waste power plants, which dropped their droppings and the offal of a high temperature in rivers.
The photographs taken in the wavelengths of thermal radiation, infrared spectrum by means of a survey report on their access to material contamination on the opposite bank of the river, or if the pollution these materials constitute an objection to the passage of fish in such rivers or other water sources, In addition to the possibility of drawing a map of the distribution of surface temperature of the polluted river water.
1. Locating oil spill
Vtserb oil is a growing problem difficulties, are usually the traditional information-gathering procedures failed to determine the extent of the oil spill or to trace, but the types of remote sensing techniques have demonstrated their ability to perform these tasks, Fallon Luminous light for oil leaks detectable by remote sensing instruments, which benefit from the measure ultraviolet radiation in the area studied.
And scanning devices that can measure the infrared thermal radiation, and radiation measuring devices infinite palace flour Fine Microwaves detect oil spills and oil spills as well.
2. Monitor the implementation of pollution laws
Could use radiation measuring instruments on board satellites to monitor the implementation of the laws of local pollution, and some remote sensing instruments effective at night in particular, as well as in times of cloudy, foggy weather, a time favorites and exploited by ship owners to dispose of their waste into the sea.
3. Pollution Monitoring
Space image can be monitored, and causes of pollution in the air, water and soil, thus facilitating the follow-up to these effects on amenities and resources, and then take counter-measures, it distinguishes spectral analysis of the image, eg, between fresh water and water contaminated with salts, etc., and monitor the combustion gases, and clouds of smoke rising from the industrial installations, and follow-up impact on the atmosphere and vegetation.
4. Identify points of ignition in the forests and the extent of the spread of fire
The spectral thermal scanner, located in the infrared, the ability to set small fires and ignition points in the forest, which is used, in effect, applied to combat forest fires, as the ability to penetrate smoke and fog by these rays they can reach out to set the hot spots, and thus lead to portray the actual fire perimeter.
There are hundreds of fires deliberately set on each year to convert the land to agricultural fields, a practice that has quadrupled over the last century. Some sensors can track this flame and measure the intensity, while the other sensors that measure the extent of the effects of fire and how to monitor the movement of gases and smoke particles through the atmosphere high degree of accuracy.
5. Monitoring of natural disasters
In connection with natural disasters, you can remote sensing images to give accurate and timely information about such disasters before they occur or during, or shortly after they occurred, such as floods, hurricanes, forest fires and volcanic eruptions. In connection with the earthquakes have been able to detect areas of satellite images of the activity causing the earthquakes, so that preventive action can be taken as soon as possible countermeasures.
The imaging system features a unique space for organizations and institutions that wish to civilian government in an analysis of disasters or major risks, such as hurricane damage, floods and other natural disasters. Union has developed a Western economic "agreement of major disasters Union", and providing information for the twenty-one countries are members, in addition to Japan, a member of an observer.