The use of remote sensing techniques in the exploration of celestial space
Awaits humanity amazing developments in the use of remote sensing techniques in the exploration of celestial space science after having made many achievements over the twentieth century, including the descent of the American astronaut, "Neil Armstrong" on the surface of the moon.
In the current century, it is very likely to discover that we are not alone in this universe, it is also possible that humans set foot on the surface of their feet on another planet, (see the table of the solar system planets and their characteristics), and there are plans for the completion of the first international space station, and there are perceptions of the table for trips to the planet "Pluto", which was discovered in 1930, but to the sun, and some speculate to operate flights to the buyer and the flower using the "sails space" solar-powered.
And the level closest to the ground, I discovered vast stockpiles of ice on the moon, which would open the way for potential development of human settlements there, the presence of water resource in the moon facilitate the processes necessary for the settlement of space, as it can to dismantle the water Mkunet "oxygen and hydrogen," to serve as fuel for rockets, Future plans include for the nearest neighbor of the solar system, the moon, establishing a center for rocket and research centers permanent.
First: The search for life on other planets
Space activities also intensify the search for life on other planets, there are two main reasons for this: first, the discovery of what could be fossils from Mars found in "Antarctica", and the other the discovery of small objects on our planet have the ability to adapt to high temperatures and very cold stinging, and live in the deepest regions of the world's oceans, but within the rock at a depth of one km away from the surface.
But what is the most ambitious actors is "Astrobiology Institute," which was established within the research center for NASA, "NASA" NASA. This program seeks to bring together scientists from different disciplines for intensive research on life outside the planet Earth. And several initiatives focused on just beneath the snow over the mountains of the mysterious "Europe" on the surface of Jupiter, apparently in a world of confined water below the depth of several miles of snow, is likely to have custody of protecting the keenness of a form of life.
It may be the most important features of space activities in the twenty-century atheist AD research project on rational creatures in the universe, called the "City" Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: SETI.
This project aims to search for advanced civilizations in the universe, where he can pick up any radio signals sent from any civilization similar to us in intelligence, and revolves around one of suns that exist between the nearest thousand suns of the planet. The project consists of two systems operating from two locations: the first at the University "Harvard" in the United States of America, and the other near the city of "Buenos Aires", Argentina.
Second: Protecting Earth from collisions of space objects
Of the space activities of the twentieth century atheist and those which deal with the protection of Earth from collisions of space objects, and ongoing studies in this area confirms that there are about 2000 a space object, the length of each are larger than one kilometer, taking place in the near-Earth orbit, and only about 7% of these objects were detected.
There are some incidents of confirmed collision of space objects on the ground, as happened in the "Tunguska" desert of Siberia in 1908, when he hit a 60-meter guilty of that region, which destroyed about 2000 square kilometers of forest.
And more than one project in this area focuses mainly on monitoring of the quality of the objects and recording such as "clear asteroids cross the orbit of the Earth" in the observatory "Palomar", California, USA, in conjunction with other observatories around the world, as well as the "guard space" Space Guard supervised by the agency "NASA", to record each space object close to the ground than one kilometer long.
III: Exploring the Space Objects
In the decades since the launch of first satellite achieved enormous progress in the observation of many types of radiation from the sun and understand its impact on the ground, and the nature of the moon and the planets and the history of evolution, there have been many discoveries of fundamental importance in astronomy Stellar Stellar Astronomy, and became all objects in the group Solar In the center is located between the planets in the reach of remote sensing techniques.
Sensors have been sent to the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, and will also send some data on the planetary "Uranus" and "Neptune", and then sent it up, "Pioneer - 10" Pioneer-10 in space, away from the sun more, making the planet "Pluto ".
He said scientists reported collision of the comet "Shoemaker - Levy," Jupiter, the discovery of rock in the Antarctic meteorite originating from Mars, and the traces of primitive life Baktirip, and landing, "Pathfinder" Pathfinder on Mars and landed on the roof of the vehicle mechanism "Sojourner," and the concomitant the transfer of precise imaging the topography of Mars directly to viewers on Earth on the Fourth of July 1997, the Declaration on the detection of a planet is likely to pass very close to the ground, or runs into in 2028.
1. The activities of the twenty-century atheist century to explore the celestial space
Space activities will focus in the present century to explore the solar system and study of cosmic phenomena and the search for answers to questions of principle regarding the origin of the universe and its destiny, and life and development, and the possible existence elsewhere in the universe, and this type of activity surrounded by the always controversial, largely because of high cost, when out of intellectual framework to the field of practical application.
The program will focus international space during this century to establish a human settlement on the moon, attention has returned again after the moon to stop exploration by the end of the project "Apollo," which grossed a human landing on the lunar surface more than once.
Americans sent the vehicle, "Moon Explorer" Luner Prospector, which revolve around the moon, to determine accurately, through its organs, and whether or not there is water in the polar region of it, and spacecraft is trying to collect everything about the moon's environment: temperature, soil, solar wind, cosmic rays.
Activity will continue to explore the planet Mars, an update of what has been sent when the agency "NASA" in the late seventies of the twentieth century a series of flights "Viking", to land on its surface and test the soil to search for traces of life, and the results were negative. There is a belief that the water had been found on the surface for the period of its history, as well as the available solar energy and the elements necessary for organic materials, such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, in addition to the presence of weather, and a stable environment, to embrace life and preserve it.
2. The role of space stations in the exploration of celestial space
Imagine the National Committee of the American space when the International Space Station in orbit, a number of options to create what it calls "the infrastructure needed for exploration of the solar interior and occupation."
These options include the construction of three other space stations: one in high orbit around the Earth, and the other in an orbit around the moon, and a third in orbit around Mars, and the development of other space stations in orbit around the Earth's moon, or a group of Earth and Mars, to work, "buses" are far range of movement between the Earth and the moon, or between the planets, and build several vehicles to transport astronauts to and fro, between the various space stations, moon and planets.
3. Use hot-air balloon in the exploration of celestial space
What scientists learn from the projects carried out so far, such as the balloon continued, it might be useful, one day, in access to other worlds. There are six planets have casings of air would allow the balloon flight which are: Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Titan, one of Saturn's moons. But every one of these airspace presents a different challenge from the challenge posed by the Earth's atmosphere.
The researchers hope in the field of space balloon platforms to provide low-cost, to explore the sky in order to learn and its fittings, and control planets surface by remote sensors, as well as hoped by using the balloon as a platform to launch from unmanned aircraft, including aircraft equipped to take samples from the surfaces of the planets . Of course it is possible to bring these samples to Earth for analysis, a detailed analysis.
4. Exploration of Mars by balloon
Atmosphere of Mars might provide a chance to put recent developments in the technology of balloons into effect in the near future, because the atmospheric density at sea level on Mars, about the same density of air at sea level on Earth. This means that the airship, which will rise a few meters over the surface of Mars must be Stratosverria a zeppelin, a prolonged flight, class of super-pressure balloons that can be kept flying for several months.
There is no doubt that the vehicles are built on the surface of the planet that can roam the part of the surface of this planet, but the airship it is prepared to go farther and do my observations and much more. While it can not balloons carrying sensors can cover the entire planet, such as those carried by the satellite, but it can take much better pictures of the surface of the planet, that would allow scientists to monitor the factors of the utmost importance, such as magnetism, and groundwater.
And France and Russia have cooperated in a project to send a balloon to Mars in an ambitious attempt to take pictures of its surface, and collecting samples of chemical and physical measurements on this surface by a rope guide is taken from him, but the project was canceled because of financial problems, Russia is experiencing.
However, the agency has already begun, "NASA" after two years to work towards new technologies, the need arose to transfer to a smaller balloon or a balloon, "robotic" Robot to Mars, relying on studies of the French Space Agency have carried out. The successful agency "NASA" in a system of inflatable antenna light cluster, in the spring of 1999 began a series of tests in the stratosphere.
5. Exploration of the planet Venus
The planet Venus, the planet closest to Earth, its mass is equal to 82 per cent of the mass of the planet, surrounded by sheath air hotter and more dense than the Earth's atmosphere, it has already been explored by balloons.
In 1985 development of the former Soviet Union, in cooperation with France and the United States, Mntadin at an altitude of 54 km above the surface of Venus, where they worked about 48 hours, and certainly half the distance around the planet.
Scientists have received, through the organs built on Almntadin, information confirming that there are strong winds blowing at high altitudes above the surface of Venus, and were able to measure the temperature of the planet's atmosphere and values of atmospheric pressure on its surface. Took over the agency "NASA" in this project the task of coordination between relay stations for Earth balloon, which was followed Almntadin, to determine the whereabouts and existence, and are faster.
A. Problems of exploration of the planet Venus
Due to the intense atmosphere of Venus, because it is surrounded by a thick cover of air, it is not possible to see the planet from space and only radio waves of certain wavelengths Wavelengths. The temperature at the surface of Venus, and intensity of faces, are the height and intensity that can not work on the spacecraft that the surface more than a few hours. As a result, it may be hot-air balloon is one of the options available for scientists to explore the surface of the planet.
The general idea to achieve this goal envisions a project to transfer to balloon flying high in the atmosphere of Venus and sends a small number of sensors to the planet's surface to obtain high-resolution images and information on the spectral analysis, that will help scientists to solve the mysteries of the planet's evolution. And the implementation of this idea is possible, even the existing technology.
B. A project for sending a spacecraft to the planet Venus
There is thinking in the implementation of more ambitious task, is to send the vehicle could do frequent short trips from cold upper atmosphere of Venus to the planet's surface, where the temperature 460 degrees Celsius. After the vehicle to take samples, dating back to the top layer of the atmosphere to cool tools and electronic devices that bear.
Has developed a "NASA" already have some basic means to achieve this task, the equipment that could withstand temperatures of the planet's surface and the withdrawal of high sulfuric acid.
C. The use of balloons high temperature
Working teams, one in the "NASA" and the other in the European Space Agency, to study a project to bring a sampling of the surface of Venus to Earth. The two sides agree that the balloon will heat a major role in this project, since it could be used in sampling of rocks and soil to a height of about 60 km, where the planet's atmosphere is thin enough to build on those balloons rocket carrying a space ship the samples to take back it to the ground.
6. Explore Saturn's moon Titan
Saturn's moon Titan, Titan, (see the picture of the moon Titan), is a key objective of the functions of space exploration, because it may still retain organic chemicals, which were not found anywhere else in the solar system. Because photochemical reactions in the atmosphere generates an orange layer of organic material, this class is overshadowed by the surface of Titan on vision when flying the spaceship "Voyager" Voyger proximity in the eighties of the twentieth century.
The U.S. spacecraft "Cassini" Cassini, (see the picture of NASA's Cassini spacecraft), began its journey to explore the "Saturn," Down with the largest moons "Titan," capsule "Hujin" Hugen, developed by the European Space Agency, and will reach Saturn in July revolve around in 2004, and the vehicle "observer Mars" Mars Observer cost came to about a billion dollars.
It is believed that the moon Titan sailors large hydrocarbons, as well as surface land, but its atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen, which is more dense than the Earth's atmosphere four times, but it is much more cold. Here, too, can be balloons ideal platforms for exploration. It can be launched from vehicles to carry multiple woes to the surface of the moon to take pictures up close, even for in situ measurements of organic chemicals.
Scientists believe that these chemicals may hold answers to questions about the origin of life. May help the task carried out by the balloon in the day of landing a vehicle to move over the surface of Titan, and send samples of the surface to the ground.
7. Uncover the secrets of the sun
Trying to remote sensing techniques that reveal the secrets of the sun, when considering the ordinary person to the sun, from afar, it seemed to him like a ball smooth and regular gas, not an object is extremely complex. However, a careful look shows that the sun in the case of permanent upheaval and turmoil. This fact raises many critical questions about this star.
For example, scientists do not know how to generate solar magnetic fields are responsible for most of the solar activity, including the explosions, which are not predictable, which cause magnetic storms and power outages on Earth.
Also, they do not know why the magnetic concentration of these so-called "sunspots" Sunspots, a dark Islands, located on the surface of the sun, and the size of each approximately the size of the globe, and its magnetic activity thousands of times greater than Earth's magnetic field. In addition, the physicists can not explain why significant changes in the magnetic activity of the sun, as this activity fades, and then intensify again every 11 years ago.
A. The launch of a laboratory "LMS"
In 1973 launched a U.S. lab sky "LMS" Sky Lab, were on board the first space-based astronomical observatory equipped with eight lenses, and focused most of the astronomical experiments conducted by, on solar studies in particular, and in particular imaging of the flames that erupt from the sun, and used for the devices to film "halo" around the sun disk, and measuring the degree of polarization of light.
B. Launch of the ship "Ulysses"
In October 1990 launched the European Space Agency spacecraft called "Ulysses" Ulysses by the U.S. shuttle, to explore the solar activity, which was at the time is coming to a climax, and the ship was powered American uses of radioisotopes.
Direction and targeted the ship to Jupiter, the largest planets of the solar system, to gain from turning around the supply capacity of the motor is pushing towards the south pole of the sun very quickly, had barely 126 kilometers per second. The ship arrived to the buyer in February 1992, and passed under the south pole of the Sun in September 1994, then moved to the North Pole I came near him after 265 days.
Interest and walk the sun's poles took place is scientists believe they play a key role in the payment of millions of tons of plasma, the ionized gases that make up the solar wind. Has overseen the program "Ulysses" 120 scientists from the two agencies, representing 40 scientific institutions and the project cost 750 million dollars.
C. Vehicle "Soho" to explore the sun
To achieve better forecasts of the impact of the sun on Earth, launched the U.S. space agency, "NASA" NASA in the December 2, 1995 spacecraft, weighing two tons, to monitor the sun and cover, and you know this vehicle as the "SOHO" Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).
On February 14, 1996 amounted to "Soho" its permanent, away from the earth is about one percent of the distance between the Earth and the sun. At this location be a "Soho" balanced between the force of gravity and the force of attraction of the sun, and then, it revolves around the sun along with the ground.
While the previous spacecraft, launched to study the sun revolves around the Earth, which was eclipsed by the vision of the sun, at regular intervals, the "Soho" watching the sun by a continuous monitoring device 12 scans a detailed scrutiny of the sun, not unprecedented.
Transfer pictures "Soho" and analyze
They send every day, thousands of pictures of the sun through the antenna, "Deep Space Network" Deep Space Network Agency's "NASA", and move the images to an operations center, where there are organizers of the experiments, observers of the vehicle, "Soho".
At the operations center afflicts specialize in solar physics, from all over the world, to monitor the sun for day and night. And transferred many of the unique pictures, which they received them, to the home page on the Internet.
When I started to access images for the first time, the sun was in the depths of their activity. Since the "Soho" It carries enough fuel to continue its work for a decade or more ago, it will continue to monitor the sun during the storm are all chapters. However, it provided the "Soho" scientists - until now - a wonderful discoveries.
D. Solar cycle
To understand the solar cycle, needs careful consideration in the depths of the star, where magnetism arises. One way to discover these depths, invisible, reflected in tracking the movements, semi-rhythmic, up and down, to the visible outer surface of the sun, which is called the "light ball" Photosphere.
These seismic movements, which can rise to tens of kilometers, at speeds of a few hundred meters per second, arising from the voices make their way across the sun.
E. Voices of the sun
Holding these voices inside the sun, and then can not spread in space near the sun, even if these voices were able to reach the earth, they are then too weak to hear her rights.
However, when these voices of the Sun's surface, and bounce due to having been launched, they upset the gas there, which makes it go up and down movement of rhythmic slow. Alaratjavip and movements, generated by these sounds, you can not see with the naked eye, but the devices on board the "Soho" You can record a record routine.
And. Vibrating surface of the sun
Vibrating surface of the sun is the result of a joint for about 10 million votes separately, each with the spread of its own, and distinguishes a specific passage completely inside the sun. Thus, the known physical form of the star in full, ranging from the highly volatile region, a region of State of the sun, which holds 28.7% of the radius, to the region of radioactive and heart, require the identification of class minutes for each of these sounds.
The main factor that distinguishes every vote is speed, which in turn depends on the temperature of the sun and the installation of areas crossed by the sound. And computes the scientists, "Soho" the expected speed of sound using the computer, and then be inferred by changes in temperature, density, and composition, which occurs along the radius of the sun.
G. Match the data, "Soho" with previous data
at the moment, the theoretical expectations and observations conducted mediation telescope carried by the vehicle "Soho", in line with each other a great line, which shows that such Mixed movements may occur within the heart of the power generator, and these concepts very important in the study of the origin and evolution of stars.
Astronomers have known for more than three centuries as a result of the detected sunspot optical spin the ball when the sun's equator to the steadily decreasing rapidly move towards the poles. The data confirmed "Soho" that the speed of rotation equal at the poles, is equal to approximately one third of the speed of the equator.
H. Detect the external layers of the sun
helped telescope carried by the vehicle "Soho" to detect the external layers of the sun. Because of the fact that the lenses of this telescope are located outside the earth's atmosphere, brow of the vision, it could continue to analyze some of the finer details, which can not always see from the ground. For this reason, these lenses have proved of great benefit in the science of earthquakes, which includes a new technology that shows the movement of gases under the optical ball directly.
and the method of this is that the telescope log periodic changes in the small wavelengths of the light of the nearly one million points in the sun every minute. And follow-up this process, it becomes possible to determine the time it takes sound waves to penetrate the outer layers of the sun.
I. Mapping three-sun
provided Telescope composite "Soho" Scientists Balozmnp the duration of sounds that reflect thousands of tracks connecting tens of thousands of surface points. Has been used by scientists, "Soho" of these data in map, the three-dimensional structure of the interior of the sun.
was introduced to the scientists data "Soho" in computers, high-Super Computers to identify trends in temperature and flow along these paths cross. Using these techniques, within two years of almost continuous observations, scientists have been able "Soho" of the discovery of large rivers of hot gas held inside the sun.
Me. Currents solar
There is absolutely unexpected currents encircling the polar regions of the sun light directly under the ball, it looks like the high currents flowing in the Earth's atmosphere, which has a significant impact on the Earth's climate. These solar currents, which encircle the sun, located entirely within the sun, at a depth of 40 thousand km, under the ball of light.
not, therefore, can be seen in the apparent surface of the sun, a burst of speed is greater than the surrounding gas by 10%, that is faster by about 130 km per hour, and it is so vast that it can flood the land of planets of the planets.
K. The outer layer of the sun
The outer layer of the sun, which has a thickness of 25000 km, at least, they are also slowly from the tropics to the poles, speed of about 90 kilometers per hour. At this rate, the body can be moved from the tropics to the poles in a little over a year. Of course, the sun revolves on its axis much faster, at approximately 7000 kilometers per hour, and the cycle is fully in the tropical region during the 25.7 days.
The researchers also uncovered internal rivers of gas, moving in the tape, near the equator, different relative speeds, both in the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere, and to view the solar belt exceeds 64 thousand km, which moving towards one of the parties, more rapidly than gas Sixteen kilometers per hour.
These broad belts of high-speed currents remember scientists terrestrial tropical trade winds, and also the atmosphere of Jupiter bar, multi-colors. These tapes have deep roots, stretching into the sun by about 19 thousand kilometers. It was not possible ever to know the conditions of newly discovered solar system with this degree of detail than just stare at the visual layer of the sun's atmosphere.
For. Sun's magnetic fields
Scientists have studied the movements at a depth of about 1400 km, and compared them in a magnetic cover the area, picked up by another machine. They found that strong magnetic concentrations are greatest in areas of converging currents of gas under the surface.
Thus, the gas turbulent forced magnetic fields on the trend towards one area and focus that lead to overcome the magnetic pressure outward, which must make such concentrations of topical swells and distracted.
M. Internal unrest in the sun
between ultraviolet radiation that the Sun is a violent place, and full of activity, even during the passage of solar activity cycle, which is for eleven years. It seems that the sun shining in the light of all ultraviolet radiation, of the bright spots concentrated in specific places.
and based on measurements carried out by the "Soho", these spots warm up in temperatures close to million degrees absolute "K" K , it looks as if it originated in parts of the small magnetic hot gas, found in all parts of the sun, including Qtabaha North and South. And explode some of these patches, and release material outward, at speeds estimated at hundreds of kilometers per second.
sensors can not get over the sight of both sides of the sun, and therefore do not see only a fraction of mobile material, oriented towards the Earth, or emanating from it. Scientists believe that these are disorders of ballistics comprehensive range, spread around the sun as a whole.
In fact, it appears that large areas, unexpectedly, a violent disturbance disturbed when the sun launches a huge projectiles, and that, at least, during the activity minimum of solar activity cycle, which extends 11 years.
N. The solar wind
the sun's atmosphere grows hot and windy always, in all directions, filling, continuous stream of the solar system, called "solar wind" Solar Wind, and contains electrons and ions and magnetic fields. And accelerates the solar wind, with a break from the sun, Kedzreet water in excess of a dam.
measurements have shown previous-brokered portable devices on board the spacecraft, as well as measurements of a spacecraft "Ulysses" Ulysses, the solar wind consists of two parts, one fast and one slow. As part of rapid move promptly of 800 kilometers per second, while the slow walking speed is equivalent to half that speed.
Q. Study of solar oscillations
assigned to certain devices on board the "Soho" the task of exposing the secrets of the other, where the two bodies of these devices a study of solar vibrations, in order to determine the temperature and speed of rotation in the central region of the sun. Furthermore, the internal disturbances, which occur inside the sun, and the associated activities, magnetic, directly affect our daily lives, increasing with time.
and here comes the role of the "Soho", which must then submit lists the greatest scientific Also, determine how revolutions arise the sun, warning of hazards, and the storm winds and warm, and perhaps predict the conditions prevailing in the solar atmosphere.
8. Japan and European programs for the exploration of celestial space
addition to American and Russian programs, there are several programs to others, the European Space Agency of the first vehicles were sent into space called "Giotto" Giotto to comet "Hale."
The program focuses on the Japanese lunar exploration as the closest of the space to the earth, Japan has launch rockets models H-1 and H-2 and M-5, and sent two vehicles, "Swayze" and "Sakiqik" ; to explore the comet, "Haley," and sent the vehicle "Haitn" to orbit the moon, and then sent the vehicle "Joitl" to explore the solar system, and sent the vehicle to "Lunar - Any" Luner-A to orbit the moon landing and seismometers on the surface part of its program to explore the moon.